SEC Document

7) Property, Plant & Equipment


May 31,    2017      2016          
(In thousands)              


   $ 82,184      $ 60,223          

Buildings and leasehold improvements

     427,304        363,036          

Machinery and equipment

     975,091        921,571          

Total property, plant and equipment, at cost

     1,484,579        1,344,830          

Less: allowance for depreciation and amortization

     741,893        715,377          

Property, plant and equipment, net

   $ 742,686      $ 629,453          

We review long-lived assets for impairment when circumstances indicate that the carrying values of these assets may not be recoverable. For assets that are to be held and used, an impairment charge is recognized when the estimated undiscounted future cash flows associated with the asset or group of assets are less than their carrying value. If impairment exists, an adjustment is made to write the asset down to its fair value, and a loss is recorded for the difference between the carrying value and the fair value. Fair values are determined based on quoted market values, discounted cash flows, internal appraisals or external appraisals, as applicable. Assets to be disposed of are carried at the lower of their carrying value or estimated net realizable value.

Depreciation is computed primarily using the straight-line method over the following ranges of useful lives:


Land improvements

   1 to 50 years   

Buildings and improvements

   1 to 80 years   

Machinery and equipment

   1 to 30 years   

Total depreciation expense for each fiscal period includes the charges to income that result from the amortization of assets recorded under capital leases.

8) Revenue Recognition

Revenues are recognized when realized or realizable, and when earned. In general, this is when title and risk of loss pass to the customer. Further, revenues are realizable when we have persuasive evidence of a sales arrangement, the product has been shipped or the services have been provided to the customer, the sales price is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. We reduce our revenues for estimated customer returns and allowances, certain rebates, sales incentives, and promotions in the same period the related sales are recorded.

We also record revenues generated under long-term construction contracts, mainly in connection with the installation of specialized roofing and flooring systems, and related services. Certain long-term construction contracts are accounted for under the percentage-of-completion method, and therefore we record contract revenues and related costs as our contracts progress. This method recognizes the economic results of contract performance on a timelier basis than does the completed-contract method; however, application of this method requires reasonably dependable estimates of progress toward completion, as well as other dependable estimates. When reasonably dependable estimates cannot be made, or if other factors make estimates doubtful, the completed-contract method is applied. Under the completed-contract method, billings and costs are accumulated on the balance sheet as the contract progresses, but no revenue is recognized until the contract is complete or substantially complete.

9) Shipping Costs

Shipping costs paid to third-party shippers for transporting products to customers are included in SG&A expenses. For the years ended May 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, shipping costs were $148.9 million, $145.3 million and $142.9 million, respectively.

10) Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Receivable

An allowance for anticipated uncollectible trade receivable amounts is established using a combination of specifically identified accounts to be reserved and a reserve covering trends in collectibility. These estimates are based on an analysis of trends in collectibility and past experience, but are primarily made up of individual account balances identified as doubtful based on specific facts and conditions. Receivable losses are charged against the allowance when we confirm uncollectibility. Actual collections of trade receivables could differ from our estimates due to changes in future economic or industry conditions or specific customer’s financial conditions. For the periods ended May 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, bad debt expense approximated $16.0 million, $8.7 million and $4.9 million, respectively. The increase in bad debt expense during fiscal 2017 was primarily the result of our reassessment of the collectibility of accounts receivable, particularly in emerging markets.

11) Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, cost being determined on a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis and net realizable value being determined on the basis of replacement cost. Inventory costs include raw materials, labor and manufacturing overhead. We review the net realizable value of our inventory in detail on an on-going basis, with consideration given to various factors, which include our estimated reserves for excess, obsolete, slow moving or distressed inventories. If actual market conditions differ from our projections, and our estimates prove to be inaccurate, write-downs of inventory values and adjustments to cost of sales may be required. Historically, our inventory reserves have approximated actual experience. Inventories were composed of the following major classes:


May 31,    2017      2016          


(In thousands)


Raw material and supplies

   $   248,426      $ 227,900          

Finished goods

     539,771        457,918          

Total Inventory

   $ 788,197      $    685,818          

12) Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

We account for goodwill and other intangible assets in accordance with the provisions of ASC 350 and account for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting and accordingly, the assets and liabilities of the entities acquired are recorded at their estimated fair values at the acquisition date. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price paid over the fair value of net assets acquired, including the amount assigned to identifiable intangible assets.

We performed the required annual goodwill impairment assessments as of the first day of our fourth fiscal quarter at the reporting unit level. Our reporting units have been identified at the component level, which is the operating segment level or one level below. First, we assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. The traditional two-step quantitative process is required only if we conclude that it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying amount. However, we have an unconditional option to bypass a qualitative assessment and proceed directly to performing the traditional two-step quantitative analysis. We applied both the qualitative and traditional two-step quantitative processes during our annual goodwill impairment assessment performed during the fourth quarters of fiscal 2017, 2016 and 2015.



38    RPM International Inc. and Subsidiaries

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